On the nature of thinking. Topics addressed: Epistemology; Given Thought; Not-given Cognitive Thinking; Spiritual Activity; The Directly Given Physiology; Mirrored Thought; Experience of Thinking Spiritual Perspective; Logos-nature; Destiny of Spiritual Activity; Wisdom and Love; Christian Aspect of Cognitive Activity. – For many who come in contact with Rudolf Steiner’s work the use and meaning of the words thought and thinking raise questions. This is partly because thinking seems to take such an important part in Steiner’s view of the human being and his outline of spiritual schooling-which seems not the case for many other perspectives. Thus countless misunderstandings have arisen among students of Steiner’s works themselves, as well as with adherents of other schools. This is partly due to some generous translations of the German original texts and misunderstandings by the translators, partly because Steiner himself does not always use the German denken (verb), Denken (noun), Gedanke (noun) in exactly the same sense; it always depends on the context in which these terms are used, how they need to be understood. One can distinguish between the perspective of Steiner’s philosophical works and his descriptions for other disciplines, like pedagogy, physiology, psychology, etc. Seen together, all perspectives allow us to make a clear distinction between the way and manner in which we use and experience thinking in our everyday life, and on levels of consciousness which are modified either by conscious activities, like concentration and meditation, or in dream and sleep. With every shift in the level of consciousness, that which we call thinking undergoes a metamorphosis and appears in a different light. –From the Introduction Friedemann Schwarzkopf (1947-2003) was a longtime student of the work of Rudolf Steiner, especially Biodynamic agriculture, the Goethean approach to science, and Rudolf Steiner’s Philosophy of Freedom.